Egzamin TOEFL jest najczęściej zdawanym egzaminem potwierdzającym znajomość języka angielskiego w kontekście studiów i środowiska akademickiego. Wynik z tego egzaminu jest podstawowym kryterium rekrutacyjnym stosowanym przez ponad 6 100 uniwersytetów, szkół wyższych oraz organizacji edukacyjnych w 180 krajach na całym świecie. Egzamin składa się z 4 części: czytanie, słuchanie, mówienie, pisanie. Trwa około 4 godziny i można na nim zdobyć maksymalnie 120 punktów.
Teksty wykorzystane w tym fragmencie egzaminu TOEFL mogą
pochodzić z podręczników uniwersyteckich i przeważnie składają się z trzech
części: narracja historyczna lub biograficzna, rozprawka lub przedstawienie
Test jest skierowany do osób chcących studiować za granicą lub w angielskojęzycznym kraju na poziomie uniwersyteckim, tak więc teksty, które znajdują się na egzaminie, są ze środowiska akademickiego i występuje w nich też takie słownictwo. Spróbuj dowiedzieć się, jaki jest główny zamysł każdego akapitu – do tego będą odnosić się pytania. Zadania w tej sekcji są zróżnicowane, warto uwzględnić rodzaj każdego z nich w swoich przygotowaniach.
Przykładowe zadania w tej sekcji:
Directions: Read the passage. Give yourself 20 minutes to complete this practice set.
1.The city of Teotihuacán, which lay about 50 kilometers northeast of modern-day Mexico City, began its growth by 200 –100 B.C. At its height, between about A.D. 150 and 700, it probably had a population of more than 125,000 people and covered at least 20 square kilometers. It had over 2,000 apartment complexes, a great market, a large number of industrial workshops, an administrative center, a number of massive religious edifices, and a regular grid pattern of streets and buildings. Clearly, much planning and central control were involved in the expansion and ordering of this great metropolis. Moreover, the city had economic and perhaps religious contacts with most parts of Mesoamerica (modern Central America and Mexico).
2.How did this tremendous development take place, and why did it happen in the Teotihuacán Valley? Among the main factors are Teotihuacán's geographic location on a natural trade route to the south and east of the Valley of Mexico, the obsydian resources in the Teotihuacán Valley itself, and the valley's potential for extensive irrigation. The exact role of other factors is much more difficult to pinpoint —for instance, Teotihuacán's religious significance as a shrine, the historical situation in and around the Valley of Mexico toward the end of the first millennium B.C., the ingenuity and foresightedness of Teotihuacán's elite, and, finally, the impact of natural disasters, such as the volcanic eruptions of the late first millennium B.C.
3. This last factor is at least circumstantially implicated in Teotihuacán's rise. Prior to 200 B.C., a number of relatively small centers coexisted in and near the Valley of Mexico. Around this time, the largest of these centers, Cuicuilco, was seriously affected by a volcanic eruption, with much of its agricultural land covered by lava. With Cuicuilco eliminated as a potential rival, any one of a number of relatively modest towns might have emerged as a leading economic and political power in Central Mexico. The archaeological evidence clearly indicates, though, that Teotihuacán was the center that did arise as the predominant force in the area by the first century A.D.
4. It seems likely that Teotihuacán's natural resources—along with the city elite's ability to recognize their potential — gave the city a competitive edge over its neighbors. The valley, like many other places in Mexican and Guatemalan highlands, was rich in obsidian. The hard volcanic stone was a resource that had been in great demand for many years, at least since the rise of the Olmecs (a people who flourished between 1200 and 400 B.C.), and it apparently had a secure market. Moreover, recent research on obsidian tools found at Olmec sites has shown that some of the obsidian obtained by the Olmecs originated near Teotihuacán. Teotihuacán obsidian must have been recognized as a valuable commodity for many centuries before the great city arose.
5. Long-distance trade in obsidian probably gave the elite residents of Teotihuacán access to a wide variety of exotic goods, as well as a relatively prosperous life. Such success may have attracted immigrants to Teotihuacán. In addition, Teotihuacán's elite may have consciously attempted to attract new inhabitants. It is also probable that as early as 200 B.C. Teotihuacán may have achieved some religious significance and its shrine (or shrines) may have served as an additional population magnet. Finally, the growing population was probably fed by increasing the number and size of irrigated fields.
6. The picture of Teotihuacán that emerges is a classic picture of positive feedback among obsidian mining and working, trade, population growth, irrigation, and religious tourism. The thriving obsidian operation, for example, would necessitate more miners, additional manufacturers of obsidian tools, and additional traders to carry the goods to new markets. All this led to increased wealth, which in turn would attract more immigrants to Teotihuacán. The growing power of the elite, who controlled the economy, would give them the means to physically coerce people to move to Teotihuacán and serve as additions to the labor force. More irrigation works would have to be built to feed the growing population, and this resulted in more power and wealth for the elite.
W celu przygotowania się na ten fragment egzaminu warto posłuchać wypowiedzi, audycji, podcastów, które przyjmują formę zbliżoną do akademickich wykładów, oraz uczestnictwa w rozmowach w języku angielskim. Warto skupić się głównie na tematyce akademickiej podczas przygotowań do tej sekcji - zapoznać się z anglojęzycznymi wykładami, dyskusjami i rozmowami o takiej tematyce.
Przykładowe zadania w tej sekcji:
Directions: Read the script. Give yourself 10 minutes to complete this practice set.
Sekcja mówienie testu TOEFL IBT
Przygotowanie do tej części egzaminu powinno opierać się
najlepszą metodą na systematycznym treningu mówienia. Tematyka nadal powinna
skupiać się środowisku akademickim. Można zbudować słowniczek pojęć
akademickich, których znajomość przyda się na egzaminie.
Przykładowe zadania w tej sekcji:
Przygotowując się do tej części, można znaleźć artykuł na określony temat, a następnie wypowiedź, która również jest w tej samej tematyce i na ich podstawie postarać się stworzyć pracę, która będzie odniesieniem do obu materiałów.
Przykładowe zadania w tej sekcji:
Directions: Give yourself 3 minutes to read the passage.
In an effort to encourage ecologically sustainable forestry practices, an international organization started issuing certifications to wood companies that meet high ecological standards by conserving resources and recycling materials. Companies that receive this certification can attract customers by advertising their products as "ecocertified." Around the world, many wood companies have adopted new, ecologically friendly practices in order to receive ecocertification. However, it is unlikely that wood companies in the United States will do the same, for several reasons.
First, American consumers are exposed to so much advertising that they would not value or even pay attention to the ecocertification label. Because so many mediocre products are labeled "new" or "improved," American consumers do not place much trust in advertising claims in general.
wood will be more expensive than uncertified wood because in order to earn
ecocertification, a wood company must pay to have its business examined by a
certification agency. This additional cost gets passed on to consumers.
American consumers tend to be strongly motivated by price, and therefore they
are likely to choose cheaper uncertified wood products. Accordingly, American
wood companies will prefer to keep their prices low rather than obtain
Third, although some people claim that it always makes good business sense for American companies to keep up with the developments in the rest of the world, this argument is not convincing. Pursuing certification would make sense for American wood companies only if they marketed most of their products abroad. But that is not the case—American wood businesses sell most of their products in the United States, catering to a very large customer base that is satisfied with the merchandise.
Directions: Read the transcript.
Narrator: Professor Well, despite what many people say, there's good reason to think that many American wood companies will eventually seek ecocertification for their wood products. First off, consumers in the United States don't treat all advertising the same. They distinguish between advertising claims that companies make about their own products and claims made by independent certification agencies. Americans have a lot of confidence in independent consumer agencies. Thus, ecologically minded Americans are likely to react very favorably to wood products ecologically certified by an independent organization with an international reputation for trustworthiness.
Second point—of course it's true that American consumers care a lot about
price—who doesn't? But studies of how consumers make decisions show that price
alone determines consumers' decisions only when the price of one competing
product is much higher or lower than another. When the price difference between
two products is small—say, less than five percent, as is the case with
certified wood— Americans often do choose on factors other than price. And
Americans are becoming increasingly convinced of the value of preserving and
protecting the environment.
And third, U.S. wood companies should definitely pay attention to what's going on in the wood business internationally, not because of foreign consumers, but because of foreign competition. As I just told you, there's a good chance that many American consumers will be interested in ecocertified products. And guess what, if American companies are slow capturing those customers, you can be sure that foreign companies will soon start crowding into the American market, offering ecocertified wood that domestic companies don't.
Directions: Give yourself 20 minutes to plan and write your response. Your response is judged on the quality of the writing and on how well it presents the points in the lecture and their relationship to the reading passage. Typically, an effective response will be 150 to 225 words. You may view the reading passage while you respond.
Question: Summarize the points made in the lecture, being sure to explain how they cast doubt on specific points made in the reading passage.